Task 2: A large number of deaths are caused by road accidents [38]

 A large number of deaths are caused by road accidents. Why do so many road accidents occur? Make recommendations that would help reduce the number of road accidents.

Step 1: analyze

1. Look for topic words: “Large number of deaths,” “road accidents”
2. Look for task words: “Why . . . occur?”
“Make recommendations . . . help reduce . . . road accidents”
3. Determine the purpose of the essay: outlining a problem and
presenting a solution.

Step 2: prepare a plan

1. Brainstorm and note as many ideas as possible. Do not organize these ideas until you have written as many as you possibly can.
“drunk drivers,” “road conditions,” “penalties,” “government,”
“advertising,” “vehicles,” “brakes, lights, steering, tires,”
“speeding,” “fines”
2. Now organize the ideas according to the pattern that follows.


1. General statement “many deaths,” “road accidents”
2. Indication of body “vehicles,” “roads,” “humans”

First paragraph

3. Topic sentence “bad vehicle maintenance”
4. Supporting sentences “tires, lights”
Solution (optional) “regular testing”

Second paragraph

5. Topic sentence “road conditions”
6. Supporting sentences “potholes, curves”
Solution (optional) “money”

Third paragraph

7. Topic sentence “driver errors”
8. Supporting sentences “drunken driving, speeding”
Solution (optional) “fines, suspension of permit”


9. Summary “test vehicles, improve roads, suspensions”
10. Conclusion “traveling by road can be made safer”

Step 3: write the essay

Note: The words in parentheses are more advanced alternatives. The
numbers refer to the standard essay pattern given in chapter 4.


1. Confucius said, “People getting killed in road accidents is a curse
placed on us by ourselves.”
2. In this essay, I will focus on three possible causes—namely, the
roadworthiness of vehicles, the condition of our roads, and the errors
made by humans.


3. Many accidents are caused by bad (inadequate) vehicle maintenance
and repairs.
4. For example, bald tires and defective brakes will dramatically
increase the stopping time of a vehicle. Regular mechanical
inspections would reduce the number of unroadworthy vehicles.


5. Road conditions also contribute to road accidents.

6. Road surfaces that are in a bad state of repair and have many potholes are dangerous. In addition, narrow roads with sharp curves can cause accidents. Lastly, snow and rain make the road surfaces slippery and difficult to drive on. The government will have to spend more money on road maintenance and so improve the condition of our road surfaces. More care will have to be taken when designing roads to get rid of (eliminate) hazardous road features.


7. The third cause of road accidents is driver errors.

8. Drunken driving and excessive speed frequently result in drivers isjudging distances and losing control of their vehicles. Other examples are drivers who pass without the necessary care and fail to use their indicators when turning.

Although the problems associated with driver errors are the most difficult to solve, advertising campaigns have proved to be effective in educating drivers about road safety. Furthermore, harsher penalties such as heavy fines and the suspension of driver’s licenses could be applied to discourage such dangerous behavior.


9. In conclusion, although it is inevitable that some accidents will occur, there are ways to reduce their frequency. Stricter and more regular vehicle testing by the authorities and more severe penalties for careless drivers are needed. In addition, more funds will have to be allocated to maintain and upgrade roads and launch advertising campaigns.

Step 4: proofread

Check for any grammar or spelling mistakes

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